Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Infections in gynecological cancers among Pakistani women


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Noureen Khan1, Chihaya Koriyama1, Suminori Akiba1
1Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima, 890-8544, Japan., Kagoshima, Japan

Background

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the casual factor for cervical cancer. However, the role of HPV infection in other gynecological cancers is still unclear.

Method

The present study aimed to determine the role of HPV in the malignant transformation of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers among Pakistani women. HPV presence was examined by PCR using SPF10 primers and primer sets targeting the E6 region of HPV-16, -18, and -33. The INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping kit was used to determine genotype.

Results

HPV DNA was detected in 94% (77/82), 30% (6/20) and 4% (4/91) of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers, respectively. The presence of HPV was significantly different among these gynecological sites (p<0.001). The most frequently detected HPV genotype was HPV-16 in all sites, and its frequency was 74 (96%), 6 (100%) and 3 (75%) in cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer, respectively. In all HPV-positive cases, the frequency of low-risk HPV genotype (p<0.001) and HPV multiple infection (p<0.001) was significantly different among these sites. The real time PCR analysis suggested the presence of integrated form of viral DNA in 97% of cervical and 100% of endometrial and ovarian cancers, respectively. The estimated viral load of HPV-16 DNA in endometrial and ovarian cancers was with the geometric mean of <1 copy/cell. The viral load of HPV-16 DNA in endometrial and ovarian cancers was significantly lower than in cervical cancer (237 copies/cell).

Conclusion

In conclusion, although HPV DNA was detected in all three types of gynecological cancers; the low HPV infection rate and viral load in endometrial and ovarian carcinoma suggest that HPV is unlikely to play as an essential role in the carcinogenesis of these cancers as in cervical cancer.